Different Types of Nurses & Nursing Specialties
September 4, 2018
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There are so many different types of nurses in various specialties that work within the hospital setting.  So how do you figure out which one is right for you?

When I was initially toying with the idea of going back to college to become a nurse, I had no idea how many types of nursing specialties there were.  I thought there was just a single “type” of nurse who did pretty much everything.

I was so wrong.  That just shows how little I knew about the nursing world back then!  I think many potential nurses who are contemplating getting a BSN may think the same thing as I once did.

The good news about starting in nursing school is that you don’t have to decide on what type of nursing specialty you want to go into right away.  At least not until you get closer to the end of nursing school and start interviewing for jobs.    Also, you can even change your nursing specialty during your career if you want (I did it and reignited my passion for nursing).  So, if you find you don’t enjoy one specialty after a while, you can look into others that might better suit you.

This particular post explores nursing career specialties within the hospital.  If you don’t want to work in the hospital, that’s OK.  There are a ton of opportunities to explore as a new grad nurse outside of the hospital setting too!  However, if the hospital setting is for you (as it was for me), then this is a quick and dirty explanation of the different types of nurses and nursing specialties that may be available to you!

Additional recommended reading:   How To Prepare For Nursing School:  9 Steps

Nursing opportunities in the hospital setting

There are dozens of different nursing specialties and levels of care in the hospital to choose from.  When deciding on a specialty, it may help to start with the level of care that works best with your personality and then work from there.  While some nursing students think the intensity of working in an emergency room might be exhilarating, others may prefer to start by learning on a medical-surgical unit instead.

The next step may be to consider which patient age groups you would most enjoy working with.  For example, a nursing school friend of mine knew from the moment she applied to nursing school that she had to be a pediatric nurse.  Yet another student friend was passionate about working in the geriatric community.  Some nurses find that they love working with newborn babies or children, while others find that they enjoy the intensity of managing patients at the ICU level of care.

Lastly, as you start studying more about the different body systems and doing clinical hours, you can decide which specialties that you are most interested in.  Being a student nurse is a great time to learn all about the different types of nurses in the hospital you might want to work in!

If you are interested in learning more about the types of nurses that in the higest demand, check out this video: 

Types of nurses, based on credentials:

Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN)

LPNs perform a number of duties under the supervision of an RN.  They have a more limited scope of practice than an RN, however, they can check vital signs, give oral medication and give injections. LPNs are trained through a state-approved educational program, which takes 12 to 24 months to achieve.

 

Registered Nurse (RN)

Registered nurses (RNs) are nurses with an associate’s or bachelor’s degree.   It takes two years to complete an associate’s degree in nursing and at least 4 years to complete a BSN.

 

Clinical Nurse Specialist (CNS)

A clinical nurse specialist (CNS) is an experienced nurse who has also completed a master’s degree in nursing.  CNS’s are trained in diagnosing and treating illnesses within a specific realm of expertise.

 

Nurse Practitioner (NP)

NPs work under the supervision of a medical doctor, however, they have the autonomy to diagnose diseases, prescribe medications, and initiate patient treatment plans. Educational requirements include a master’s or doctoral degree.

 

Levels of care in the hospital setting

 

Medical/Surgical Care

Medical-Surgical Care, otherwise known as Med/Surg, is the largest nursing specialty in the United States.  Med/Surg nurses care for adult patients who are acutely ill with a wide variety of medical issues or are recovering from surgery.  Nurses on these units often care for 4-5 patients (or more) depending on acuity.

Telemetry Care

Telemetry Unit patients are often more acutely ill and need constant monitoring.   Patients here are monitored with telemetry monitors that allow nurses to review a patient’s vital signs constantly so they can give more detailed care.  Often, Med/Surg and Telemetry patients are referred to interchangeably as many Telemetry Units have both types of patients.

Intensive Care Units

An Intensive Care Unit, otherwise known as an ICU or Critical Care Unit is a unit that provides a higher level of intensive patient care.  Patients in the ICU often have severe and life-threatening injuries that require constant, close monitoring.  Nurses in the ICU usually only care for 1 or 2 patients at a time due to the high acuity of patient care.

Emergency Room

ER nurses treat patients in emergent situations who are involved in a trauma or other life-threatening injuries.   These nurses deal with patients from all age groups involving many different levels of patient care.  You may have patients with illnesses and wounds, ranging from dog bites or minor burns to more serious conditions such as strokes or other trauma victims.

Patient age groups 

Hospital units are also broken into different age groups to offer more specialized care.  This is also something to consider when deciding on a specialty you want to work in.  Some of the age groups include:

  • Newborns
  • Pediatrics
  • Adult
  • Geriatric

Hospital specialties

Here is a general list of hospital specialty units that many nurses work in:

  • Cardiovascular
  • Thoracic
  • Neuro/Trauma
  • Medical
  • Orthopedic
  • Radiology
  • Hematology/Oncology
  • Liver Transplant
  • PACU
  • Emergency Room
  • Neonatal
  • Urology
  • Surgical
  • Gynecology
  • Operating Room

 

What nursing jobs are you most interested in?

As you can see from the above information, there are so many different types of nurses and nursing specialties.   You may want to pick a few that are most interesting to you and narrow your search in from there.  Once you get your legs wet in the profession for a few years, you may even want to look into other alternative and unique careers in nursing.

Now that you have a better understanding of the different career options out there for nurses, you may want to brush up on your interviewing skills.  Let us help you achieve that with this article “How To Land Your First Nursing Job In Six Steps.”

Are you thinking about becoming a nurse and wondering what nursing specialties might be best for you?  Or do you have any other questions about the different types of nurses in the hospital setting?  Please leave a comment or question below!

 

 

Additional recommended reading:

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